How viruses help kill bacteria.

Viruses can harm us, one example being COVID-19. This is because viruses can not replicate or live by themselves. So they insert themselves into host cells (our cells) and use the host’s organelles and machinery to replicate. Once replicated, they burst out of the cell by cytolysis, killing the cell in the process. As a … Continue reading How viruses help kill bacteria.

The Kidneys and Controlling Water Levels

Your body needs to be able to regulate its water levels to prevent cells from getting damaged. Due to osmosis, if your body has too much water, your body cells will swell up and burst. On the other hand, if your body doesn’t have enough water, cells will shrivel up and die. Thankfully, as a … Continue reading The Kidneys and Controlling Water Levels

Telomeres and why we age.

What are telomeres? Telomeres are caps at the end of our chromosomes that protect our DNA from damage. They are made up of the same short DNA sequence repeated over and over again, with the same sequence of bases. They are important for a cells because without them chromosomes would stick together and would not … Continue reading Telomeres and why we age.

The Three Types of Radiation

There are three types of radiation: alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) radiation, which all have different properties due to their structure. Radiation is emitted from radioactive isotopes (isotopes are different versions of the same element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, so they have the same atomic … Continue reading The Three Types of Radiation

Why do we shiver when we’re cold?

Imagine that it’s a freezing day, with snow piled up high and still falling and you wanted to go for a walk outside. So, you put on your extra fluffy pair of socks and very comfortable shoes and you step outside, without wearing one of the most important items of clothing, a coat. To say … Continue reading Why do we shiver when we’re cold?

Why am I scared? The science behind fear.

Biologically speaking, fear is an incredibly important feeling to have as it is responsible for helping us to get out of dangerous or scary situations. This could be something like running away from a crocodile to simply giving a speech to huge group of people. Whatever it is, it’s terrifying for us isn’t it? However, … Continue reading Why am I scared? The science behind fear.

How do Fireworks Work?

Fireworks can be characterised as self-contained explosive devices which contain a mixture of many components such as oxidising agents, fuels and metal salts. We often associate fireworks with celebration, but the first fireworks were used to warn off evil spirits. Simple firecrackers are thought to have been developed around 1000 years ago by Chinese monk … Continue reading How do Fireworks Work?

Why we Need Soap to Clean Dirty Dishes

It is well known that cleaning your dirty dishes with water alone is just not sufficient and so, we employ soaps like fairy liquid and use dishwasher tablets to help us get rid of the dirt, but why do we need these? Soap is a generic term for fatty acid salts, with the general formula … Continue reading Why we Need Soap to Clean Dirty Dishes

How Does Sunscreen Protect our Skin

Even though the sun is almost 150 million kilometres away from us, its UV rays are still able to cause significant damage to humans here on Earth. Whilst UV radiation is able to mutate your DNA and promote the formation and growth of tumours, it is also beneficial to us as it facilitates the natural … Continue reading How Does Sunscreen Protect our Skin

Nettle Stings and the Dock Leaf Remedy

Most of us have childhood memories of running through patches of tall grass and suddenly feeling a sharp pain as we scrape past a patch of nettles. The next few minutes would be spent frantically searching for a dock leaf to stop the pain, and for many of us this would still be our first … Continue reading Nettle Stings and the Dock Leaf Remedy