Oral Vaccinations.

Vaccinations have become incredibly important due to COVID-19 and the vaccine rollout needs to be faster and more efficient in order to achieve global herd immunity. Vaccines, the COVID-19 vaccine being an example, are usually injections that contain dead or weakened versions of the pathogen. However, there a numerous disadvantages to these traditional vaccines: They … Continue reading Oral Vaccinations.

How do cancer cells evade the immune system?

Cancer cells manage to hide from our immune system (IS) and understanding how they evade the IS helps scientists to create treatments for cancer. It can even help scientists figure out how to hide donor organs in a patient. If you would like to learn more about transplant immunology, click here: https://glamsci.blog/2021/04/13/transplant-immunology/ Usually the IS … Continue reading How do cancer cells evade the immune system?

What causes allergies and food intolerances?

It is estimated the 2 million people in the UK have a food allergy and many more have food intolerances. What actually happens to someone who has an allergic reaction and what are the solutions? The difference between an allergy and intolerance An allergy is a reaction of your immune system that triggers symptoms like … Continue reading What causes allergies and food intolerances?

Transplant Immunology

Transplant immunology is the study of the immune response to organ transplants in surgery. There can be many complications that arise from transplants but a major factor is the immune system’s response to a foreign organ.  Why does the immune system reject an organ? Every person has a specific set of Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) … Continue reading Transplant Immunology

Why do we shiver when we’re cold?

Imagine that it’s a freezing day, with snow piled up high and still falling and you wanted to go for a walk outside. So, you put on your extra fluffy pair of socks and very comfortable shoes and you step outside, without wearing one of the most important items of clothing, a coat. To say … Continue reading Why do we shiver when we’re cold?

The consequences of noise pollution

Noise pollution is a silent (but not so silent) threat to the environment. The idea of creating too much noise is often seen as a human problem; usually your neighbour complaining about how loud a party is. Aside from these inconveniences too much noise can harm animals and our health too.  How does noise pollution … Continue reading The consequences of noise pollution

Prions – a protein’s evil twin.

Credit: Neuropathology This is the brain tissue of someone with a prions disease. The holes show areas where the prions have destroyed cells. Prions are non-living infectious agents. The other infectious agents include viruses (also non-living), bacteria, fungi and protoctista (living). Prions are relatively rare and aren’t talked about as much, even in biology lessons.  … Continue reading Prions – a protein’s evil twin.

Why am I scared? The science behind fear.

Biologically speaking, fear is an incredibly important feeling to have as it is responsible for helping us to get out of dangerous or scary situations. This could be something like running away from a crocodile to simply giving a speech to huge group of people. Whatever it is, it’s terrifying for us isn’t it? However, … Continue reading Why am I scared? The science behind fear.

The Sun and Skin (Part 2/2) – Sunburn

You can find part 1/2 here: https://glamsci.blog/2021/02/25/the-sun-and-skin-part-1-2-pigmentation-and-melanin/ Sunburn is common but it shouldn’t be. The effects of sunburn can be dangerous and can even lead to skin cancer. Protecting our skin from the sun is ever more important with climate change and rising exposure to the sun. It seems a nuisance to apply sunscreen on … Continue reading The Sun and Skin (Part 2/2) – Sunburn

The Sun and Skin (Part 1/2) – Pigmentation and Melanin

The idea of having a different skin colour to someone else is often used to differentiate between people and separate people into groups. Our brains aim to find a difference between people and find ‘our own people’. However, skin colour actually indicates what geographical region our ancestors lived in rather than our behaviour. It’s just … Continue reading The Sun and Skin (Part 1/2) – Pigmentation and Melanin