Oral Vaccinations.

Vaccinations have become incredibly important due to COVID-19 and the vaccine rollout needs to be faster and more efficient in order to achieve global herd immunity. Vaccines, the COVID-19 vaccine being an example, are usually injections that contain dead or weakened versions of the pathogen. However, there a numerous disadvantages to these traditional vaccines: They … Continue reading Oral Vaccinations.

How do cancer cells evade the immune system?

Cancer cells manage to hide from our immune system (IS) and understanding how they evade the IS helps scientists to create treatments for cancer. It can even help scientists figure out how to hide donor organs in a patient. If you would like to learn more about transplant immunology, click here: https://glamsci.blog/2021/04/13/transplant-immunology/ Usually the IS … Continue reading How do cancer cells evade the immune system?

What causes allergies and food intolerances?

It is estimated the 2 million people in the UK have a food allergy and many more have food intolerances. What actually happens to someone who has an allergic reaction and what are the solutions? The difference between an allergy and intolerance An allergy is a reaction of your immune system that triggers symptoms like … Continue reading What causes allergies and food intolerances?

Transplant Immunology

Transplant immunology is the study of the immune response to organ transplants in surgery. There can be many complications that arise from transplants but a major factor is the immune system’s response to a foreign organ.  Why does the immune system reject an organ? Every person has a specific set of Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) … Continue reading Transplant Immunology

The consequences of noise pollution

Noise pollution is a silent (but not so silent) threat to the environment. The idea of creating too much noise is often seen as a human problem; usually your neighbour complaining about how loud a party is. Aside from these inconveniences too much noise can harm animals and our health too.  How does noise pollution … Continue reading The consequences of noise pollution

Prions – a protein’s evil twin.

Credit: Neuropathology This is the brain tissue of someone with a prions disease. The holes show areas where the prions have destroyed cells. Prions are non-living infectious agents. The other infectious agents include viruses (also non-living), bacteria, fungi and protoctista (living). Prions are relatively rare and aren’t talked about as much, even in biology lessons.  … Continue reading Prions – a protein’s evil twin.

The Sun and Skin (Part 2/2) – Sunburn

You can find part 1/2 here: https://glamsci.blog/2021/02/25/the-sun-and-skin-part-1-2-pigmentation-and-melanin/ Sunburn is common but it shouldn’t be. The effects of sunburn can be dangerous and can even lead to skin cancer. Protecting our skin from the sun is ever more important with climate change and rising exposure to the sun. It seems a nuisance to apply sunscreen on … Continue reading The Sun and Skin (Part 2/2) – Sunburn

The Sun and Skin (Part 1/2) – Pigmentation and Melanin

The idea of having a different skin colour to someone else is often used to differentiate between people and separate people into groups. Our brains aim to find a difference between people and find ‘our own people’. However, skin colour actually indicates what geographical region our ancestors lived in rather than our behaviour. It’s just … Continue reading The Sun and Skin (Part 1/2) – Pigmentation and Melanin

Why I dream of sleep.

Sleep is an important part of our day and on average a person spends 26 years sleeping! This seems like a large waste of time. However, we should be getting 8 hours sleep every day and adolescents should be getting 10 hours sleep. Those that get less than 7 hours are considered sleep deprived. As … Continue reading Why I dream of sleep.

Us and Them – faults in our understanding of animals.

I have been reading a book by primatologist Frans de Waal called “Are we smart enough to know how smart animals are?”. The book is an amazing display of the faults in our understanding of animal behaviour and cognition. We often group animals in one category and separate animals from humans. Us vs Them. However, … Continue reading Us and Them – faults in our understanding of animals.